The glass ceiling has been termed the factor for
underrepresentation of women in higher management positions.
Pakistani society is believed to be dominated by men in all walks including
positions in higher management. The purpose of this study is to explore whether it
is the glass ceiling or the personal barriers that result in the underrepresentation
phenomena of women in higher management. This exploratory study has surveyed,
through a semi-structured interview, the middle
and higher-level women manager from private
organizations located in the twin cities of
Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The findings suggest
that it is not only glass ceiling barriers but also
personal characteristics that hinder womens
professional growth. The study also contributes to
identifying personal and glass ceiling barriers
and their relative importance.
Research Scholar, Department of Management Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan.
Rao Aamir Khan
Assistant Professor, Department of Management Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan.
Assistant Professor, Institute of Business Studies, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Pakistan.
Glass Ceiling, Personal Barriers, Private Organizations, Senior Management, Underrepresentation